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What is DNS, What is the Functions of DNS Server?

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What is DNS?
What is DNS?

1What is DNS

DNS stands for Domain Name System. It is a system used to translate domain names into IP addresses, which are used to locate and identify devices and services on the internet. When you enter a domain name into your web browser, the DNS system resolves that domain name into the corresponding IP address of the server hosting the website. This allows your computer to connect to the server and retrieve the website content.

DNS works through a distributed network of servers, each of which stores a portion of the internet’s domain name database. When a DNS query is made, the requesting computer contacts a DNS server, which checks its own database for the corresponding IP address. If the server doesn’t have the information, it will query other servers in the network until it finds the correct IP address.

DNS is an essential component of the internet infrastructure, enabling users to access websites, send emails, and use other online services by using human-friendly domain names rather than numerical IP addresses.

2DNS Function

The Domain Name System (DNS) is a crucial component of the internet infrastructure and has several important uses, including:

  1. Translation of domain names to IP addresses: DNS is primarily used to translate human-readable domain names, such as “google.com”, into the numerical IP addresses that computers use to locate servers hosting websites and other internet services. This allows users to easily access websites by simply typing in a domain name instead of a complex IP address.
  2. Load balancing: DNS can be used to distribute traffic across multiple servers by returning different IP addresses for the same domain name. This can help to balance the load on servers, improving performance and reliability.
  3. Caching: DNS servers can cache domain name information to reduce the time it takes to resolve subsequent queries for the same domain. This can help to improve the performance of the internet by reducing the number of queries that need to be made across the network.
  4. Email delivery: DNS is used to help route email messages to the correct destination by providing information about the mail servers responsible for a particular domain.
  5. Security: DNS is used in various security mechanisms, such as Domain Name System Security Extensions (DNSSEC), to protect against DNS-based attacks, such as DNS spoofing and cache poisoning. DNS can also be used for content filtering and to block access to malicious or unwanted websites.

3DNS Main Type

The three main types of DNS are:

  1. Recursive DNS: This is the type of DNS that is used by client devices, such as computers and mobile devices, to look up domain names and find the corresponding IP addresses. When a client device makes a DNS request, recursive DNS servers perform the necessary lookups to find the IP address and return it to the client.
  2. Authoritative DNS: This is the type of DNS that is used by DNS servers to store and serve DNS records for a particular domain. Authoritative DNS servers are responsible for providing the IP addresses for domain names and ensuring that the information is up to date.
  3. Caching DNS: This is the type of DNS that is used by DNS servers to temporarily store DNS records that have been recently accessed. Caching DNS servers can speed up DNS lookups by returning the IP address from their cache rather than performing a new lookup. Caching DNS servers can be operated by internet service providers, network administrators, and other organizations to reduce the load on the root DNS servers.

43 DNS Server

1. The Root Server​

It is positioned at the top of the root of the DNS hierarchy and does maintain data about each of the top-level zones. It is basically controlled by NIC and has been moved to a common domain for consistent naming process.

2. Primary Server​

There is only one primary server per domain, Inside which there is a system where all the changes have been made to the domain. They periodically synchronize secondary servers of the domain.

3. Secondary Server​

There are basically one or more secondary servers per domain. They obtain a copy of the domain information for all the domains they serve from the appropriate primary server or another secondary server for the domain

5How To Use DNS Server on Your Computer

As a user, you don’t need to do anything special to use DNS – it is built into the operating system and applications you use to access the internet. However, there are a few ways you can configure or use DNS to improve your internet experience:

  1. Use a faster DNS server: Your internet service provider (ISP) likely provides a default DNS server, but you can choose to use a faster or more reliable DNS server. Many public DNS servers are available, such as Google DNS and Cloudflare DNS, and can be configured in your device’s network settings.
  2. Clear your DNS cache: Your device’s DNS cache can sometimes become outdated, which can cause issues with accessing certain websites. Clearing the cache can help resolve these issues. In Windows, you can clear the DNS cache by running the command “ipconfig /flushdns” in the command prompt.
  3. Block unwanted content: You can use DNS to block access to specific websites or types of content. Tools such as Pi-hole allow you to set up a DNS server that filters out unwanted content, such as ads or malicious websites.
  4. Configure custom DNS records: If you run your own website or server, you can configure custom DNS records to point to specific IP addresses or servers. This can help you manage your online services more efficiently and reliably.